With each criminal conviction, the state of Idaho matter-of-factly tells the defendants how long they will spend behind bars. Hidden from view, in the “fine print,” is a long list of additional penalties attached to these convictions.

Only upon leaving prison and while attempting to rebuild their lives, do offenders experience, first-hand, how these non-prison “collateral consequences” limit or deny their basic rights to housing, food stamps, education, voting, employment, child custody and much more.

A 2018 study conducted by the Prison Policy Initiative found that “formally incarcerated people are unemployed at a rate of over 27% — higher than the total U.S. unemployment rate during any historical period, including the Great Depression…[and]…Exclusionary policies and practices are responsible for these market inequities.”

The study concludes: “A prison sentence should not be a perpetual punishment…States should implement automation record expungement procedures and reform their licensing practices so as to eliminate the automatic rejection of people with felony convictions.”

“The stigma of incarceration and disconnection from the workforce,” according to a Council of State Governments report, “are among the challenges people face when trying to find a job after release from prison or jail. People who have been incarcerated earn 40 percent less annually than they had earned prior to incarceration.”

Researchers at the Council of State Governments have prepared a list of 678 separate “collateral consequences” embedded in Idaho statutes and regulations—waiting to snare persons convicted of a crime. Some consequences kick-in automatically. Others are applied on a case-by-case basis. Some have a set duration, others are indefinite.

Here are examples of how Idaho’s post-prison penalties make the prison-to-society transition more difficult for ex-offenders.


“Deny/suspend/revoke nursery/florist license.” A discretionary penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of crimes involving fraud, dishonesty, misrepresentation or money-laundering.

“Ineligible for employment with school district.” A discretionary penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of any felony, crimes of violence and sex offenses.

“Suspend/revoke outfitter/guide license.” A discretionary penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of any felony.

Other Penalties

“Ineligible to serve on a jury.” A mandatory penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of any felony.

“Forfeit portion of unemployment benefits.” A mandatory penalty with a conditional duration for conviction of child support offenses.

“Ineligible to participate in food stamp program.” A mandatory penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of controlled substances offenses.

Occupational Licenses

Because “One out of five working Americans needs a license to work while one in three American adults has a criminal record,” the Institute for Justice encourages state lawmakers to repeal needless licenses, scale back anticompetitive licensing laws and strengthen the rights of people with a criminal record to gain meaningful employment.

To do so, the Institute has prepared, for state adoption, a model legislation titled, “Collateral Consequences in Occupational Licensing Act.” And, to date, at least 18 states—but not Idaho—have reformed their occupational licensing laws to reduce entry barriers for those with a criminal record.

According to the Collateral Consequences Resource Center’s Restoration of Rights Project, a non-profit organization that tracks legal restrictions on people with a criminal record, the State of Idaho does not have a general law limiting or regulating how employers are to consider an applicant’s criminal record.

When state legislatures erect legal barriers that make life after prison difficult, if not impossible, they are setting people with a criminal record up for failure—and a trip back to prison.

Ex-offenders have a personal responsibility to make the lifestyle changes needed to successfully re-enter society. Idaho legislators also have a responsibility to give wrong-doers the opportunity to make these changes and to become productive, law-abiding citizens.

The End

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Ronald Fraser writes on public policy issues for the DKT Liberty Project, a Washington-based civil liberties organization. Email him at fraserr@erols.com.


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